Antifreeze measures for agricultural machinery in

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Antifreeze measures for agricultural machinery in winter

antifreeze of agricultural machinery in winter is very important. In order to improve the service life and economic benefits of agricultural machinery, a series of practical and effective thermal insulation and antifreeze measures should be taken for agricultural machinery in winter. In winter, due to the severe cold weather, the fluidity of fuel oil becomes poor, the viscosity of lubricating oil increases, and the cold water is easy to freeze, which brings many difficulties to the use and maintenance of agricultural machinery

winter has achieved great progress in innovation. Precautions for agricultural machinery operation in season

1. Start the engine first, and then add cooling water. It is difficult to start the engine in severe winter. Sometimes, after adding cooling water (preferably hot water), if the engine cannot start quickly, the cooling water will freeze. Therefore, the engine should be started and preheated to 40 ℃ ~ 50 ℃, then shut down and add water, and fill it up at one time

2. Start driving after the water temperature rises. After the cooling water is filled, the engine should be started immediately to warm up at a low speed, but it is not allowed to drive immediately, so as to prevent the cold air flow from further cooling the radiator, causing the cooling water to freeze. Generally speaking, do not start driving when the temperature is lower than 50 ℃, and drive at a low speed after reaching 50 ℃, and then turn to normal driving after the engine temperature rises to normal temperature. In severe cold season, you should wait until the engine rises to normal temperature before starting

when the tractor is parked, drain the cooling water immediately. At the end of a day's operation, the engine should be operated at a low throttle for 3 ~ 5 minutes, and the standby temperature should be reduced before turning off the engine and draining the cooling water. Pay attention not to operate with full load and high throttle, and not to suddenly shut down and immediately drain water, so as to prevent the body from cracking due to sudden cooling. When draining water, open the water tank cover and all drain switches, and be sure to drain it completely

take anti freezing measures. In the severe winter, cover the engine with thermal insulation curtain and thermal insulation sleeve, and use cardboard to block the wind in front of the tractor radiator if necessary, so as to reduce the entry of cold air. Some engines are equipped with oil radiators. Turn the switch to the "winter" position so that the oil does not flow through the oil radiator. Winter oil with low freezing point, such as ~ 10 diesel oil, should be used in severe cold areas

3. When the tractor is in use, once the engine overheats due to the ice resistance of the radiator, it should stop immediately, keep the engine idling, and take ice melting measures according to the conditions at that time: first, hot water ice melting. If there is boiled water, slowly pour it on the radiator downpipe that is easy to freeze, and the ice resistance will be gradually removed. The second is to melt ice in cold water. If there is tap water in the parking place, the pipe can be used to lead the water to flush the radiator surface and frozen parts until the ice resistance is eliminated

in addition, when stopping halfway, you should choose a good parking place, preferably in a flat, dry and sunny place, to avoid the tractor slipping or the tire freezing on the ground. If the parking time is expected to be long, the cooling water should also be drained to prevent the water from freezing in the machine and damaging the machine parts

III. correct use of agricultural machinery in early spring

1. All kinds of agricultural machinery should be locked regularly according to the requirements of the operation manual. 9. The fasteners of the electro-hydraulic servo universal experimental machine should be locked regularly: the vibration after the specimen is broken will often make some fasteners loose and carry out the cleaning, lubrication, adjustment, fastening and other work before use, so as to ensure that the machines and tools are put into operation in a good technical state

2. For the maintenance of the lubrication system of power machinery (such as tractors and diesel engines), in addition to using lubricating oil according to the specified standards, it is also necessary to strictly abide by the maintenance cycle and specifications of the lubrication system, clean the lubrication system regularly, and replace the filter parts regularly, so as to reduce the wear of the parts

3. The temperature in early spring is unstable and volatile, and the correct use of the cooling system of power machinery cannot be ignored: (1) continue to do a good job in antifreeze. When the temperature is below zero at night, if antifreeze is not used, the cooling water should be discharged to avoid freezing and cracking the body; (2) When the machine is started at low temperature, it should be started by preheating; (3) Pay attention to the normal operating temperature of the engine. No load operation can be carried out only when the water temperature reaches more than 40 ℃; Load operation can be started only when the temperature is above 60 ℃; The normal working temperature should be kept between 80 ~ 95 ℃ to reduce unnecessary wear of the engine

4. When the tractor carries out rotary tillage, seeding, irrigation and other operations, it must strictly abide by the operating procedures, achieve the "five purifications" and ensure safe production

(1) clean fuel. At present, most engines of agricultural machinery are diesel engines, so the purification of diesel is very important. There are three ways to purify diesel oil: first, let the purchased diesel oil settle for more than 96 hours, and then filter the funnel and add a layer of silk cloth when refueling. When taking oil from the oil drum, wrap the filter with a layer of silk cloth or typewriter wax paper, and clean or replace it regularly. In particular, the imported equipment of agricultural reclamation should be refuelled in the way of diesel sedimentation for 96 hours, three-stage filtration and float oil extraction. The fully digital dispensing oil, which has completed the data collection and control process, fills the oil tank in the evening of the first day of operation to prevent water vapor condensation

(2) if the lubricating oil is clean, always pay attention to using clean lubricating oil that meets the standard of this machine. The filter element of the engine oil filter should be cleaned regularly. The rotor type filter is pasted with a layer of kraft paper with appropriate width and length on the inner wall of the rotor to facilitate the adsorption of dirt under centrifugal action. When cleaning the dirt adsorbed on the filter element, it is best to inflate it with an air pump, blow air from inside to outside, brush it with a brush, and never wipe it by hand. Imported pump Custer red wine shall be used as required for lubricating oil. Do not inject other lubricating oil randomly

(3) clean air. When the engine is running, each cylinder absorbs 2 ~ 4 cubic meters of air per minute. In order to ensure that the air entering the cylinder is clean, the air filter must be inspected and cleaned regularly. (4) The cooling water is clean, and the engine cooling system is open. It is best to use soft water for cooling water, that is, snow, rainwater or treated tap water and clean well water. When cleaning the cooling system, add 1% caustic soda and 0.5% kerosene according to the proportion of water volume. (5) Machines and tools are clean, and agricultural machinery operations are mostly carried out in the field and open air, which are often in contact with dust, sediment and water, and the body is most likely to be dirty. Therefore, it is necessary to scrub frequently to prevent the fuselage from rusting. If necessary, paint repair shall be given to prevent rust

1. Tractors and other agricultural machinery should be parked in the garage as far as possible to prevent being eroded and frozen by wind, sun, rain and snow

2. Thoroughly clean the filter, oil pan and transmission, otherwise different grades of lubricating oil will be mixed and the lubrication effect will be reduced

3. Replace the lubricating oil in time. As the viscosity of ordinary lubricating oil increases with the decrease of temperature, the use of electronic universal testing machine has gradually become more widely, resulting in poor fluidity. Therefore, the friction resistance of machine parts increases when they are moving. When the tractor is started, it often leads to difficulties in cold start, and even accidents such as Bush burning and axle holding. Therefore, when winter comes, the lubricating oil in the oil pan, air compressor and hub bearing should be replaced with winter lubricating oil in time; Replace the gear oil in the transmission, transfer case, differential and steering gear with the gear oil used in winter

4. Thoroughly clean the oil tank. In order to ensure the purity of diesel oil and reduce freezing, the oil tank should be cleaned frequently. Generally, it is required to clean once every 20 days. When cleaning, you can only use gasoline or diesel oil instead of brush. If the paper filter element blade inside is found to be greatly deformed or rotten, it should be replaced with a new one. The pressure regulating valve on the filter seat cannot be cleaned with gasoline to avoid damaging the sealing rubber ring of the pressure regulating valve. If possible, the oil tank antifreeze device can be installed, and the oil pipe insulation cover of the oil tank can be used for antifreeze, so that the tractor can start and drive normally in the severe winter season

5. Fill and replace antifreeze in time. Before using the antifreeze, first remove the original engine antifreeze, and then clean the water channel. It is best to fill the antifreeze specified by the manufacturer to prevent the water channel from rotting in the future. In addition, the filling of antifreeze should be appropriate and must not be ignored

6. Drain the cooling water. When draining water, turn on the drain switch (generally, the engine has two drain switches, one on the cylinder block and one at the water outlet at the bottom of the radiator) and the radiator filler cap. After draining the water, start the engine to run for a while, so as to drain the cooling water. In addition, the cooling system should be cleaned before winter to prevent sundries from blocking the radiator and engine drain switch

7 drain the water in the fuel tank regularly, and strictly prevent the water from mixing into the diesel to prevent the diesel from freezing

8. Appropriately increase the proportion of battery electrolyte, and use the method of supplementary charging to keep the battery in a fully charged state, so that the battery will not lose too much capacitance and freeze crack the battery shell due to low temperature

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